Ocular Features in a Large Cohort of Indians With Xeroderma
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Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an extreme hypersensitivity to sunlight causing skin freckling and pigmentary changes because of defective DNA repair mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the spectrum of ocular and systemic features in Xeroderma pigmentosum at a tertiary eye care center in India for over 32 years.

Data from 418 eyes of 209 patients diagnosed with Xeroderma pigmentosum from 1987 to 2018 were reviewed retrospectively for demographics, complaints, ocular features, systemic associations, and their management.

The median age at diagnosis was 2 years (interquartile range, 0.5–5 years). A total of 124 patients (59.3%) were men. There was parental consanguinity in 74.4% of cases. Common ocular complaints were photophobia (47.1%), ocular discomfort (45%), defective vision (36.6%), redness (13.4%), tissue growth (12%), white spot (11.2%), and pain (10.5%). At presentation, 43.5% had corneal scars (45.5% were located inferiorly and 70.9% covered visual axis). Corneal vascularization and limbal stem cell deficiency were noted in 37.4%. A total of 56% of patients had at least 1 tumor, and 6.7% had neurological abnormalities. At least 1 ocular surgery was performed in 37.8% of patients. Ophthalmic surgical interventions included tumor excision (23%), keratoplasty (13.4%), and nontumor ocular surface surgery (3.4%).

Xeroderma pigmentosum is a disorder that has high ocular morbidity in Indian patients. The recognition of common signs and symptoms and relative frequency of various ocular complications with time trends will help in managing and reducing the sequelae of this otherwise untreatable and progressive disease.