Options for Reconstructive Techniques in Endoscopic Skull Ba
Advances in endoscopic skull base surgery (ESBS) have provided surgeons with greater access to the midline and lateral skull base with far less morbidity than has been the case in the past. As a result, patients exhibit far fewer external signs of surgery. Still, addressing the wound inside the patient is also an essential part of treatment.

The extent and robustness of surgical repair required after removal of a lesion is based on several factors. These include the size and complexity of the defect, the specific pathology being treated, the presence and nature of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and a history of previous radiation or surgery. The Head & Neck Institute’s experienced endoscopic surgeons use the concept of the reconstructive ladder — progressing from local tissue (free or pedicled) through extranasal (regional) vascularized flaps all the way to free tissue transfer from distant sites — to provide superior outcomes for patients who undergo ESBS (Table).....