Osteoarticular lesion in xanthoma disseminatum treated with
Xanthoma disseminatum is a very rare disease classified as a benign non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which is rarely associated with osteoarticular lesions. There is only a report of tumor abrasion during treatment of osteoarticular lesions of this disease, artificial joint replacement has not been reported. We describe a patient in whom bilateral total joint replacement was performed for disseminated xanthoma lesions of the hip joints.

A case of 34-year-old Japanese woman who had a chief complaint of bilateral coxalgia, was presented in Journal of Medical Case Reports 2019 13:51. She had been diagnosed as having disseminated xanthoma. Radiographs showed numerous 5-mm radiolucent bands that resembled worm-eaten tracks in the lower part of the femoral heads adjacent to the joint surface. In addition, short tau inversion recovery imaging scans showed high-intensity areas from the femoral head to the neck in both femurs, suggesting bone marrow edema. Total hip arthroplasty was performed for hip arthrosis on both hip joints caused by disseminated xanthoma. Deflection of the implants was a concern from the early stages postoperatively, but both the imaging and clinical findings have been satisfactory for 4 years of follow-up.

A very unusual hip joint lesion of xanthoma disseminatum was replaced with a total artificial joint replacement, and the course over 4 years was good. Our patient’s course will continue to be followed carefully.

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