PCOD- a burden for women
Poly cystic ovarian disease is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. In its typical form it is the association of hyperandrogenism with chronic anovulation in women without specific underlying diseases of the adrenal or pituatary glands. It is characterised by hirsutism , acne , alopecia, and elevated concentrations of androgens especially testosterone and androstenedione. It has reproductive , metabolic and cardiovascular implications on a persons health. The exact cause of this syndrome is unknown, but studies suggest a strong genetic component that is affected by gestational environment and life style factors . It affects 4% to 12% women of reproductive age group. The reproductive problems due to PCO's include infertility which is definitely a big issue to the women. Hence the management of polycystic ovarian disease is very essential. The first step is to diagnose the PCO's. It is furthur targeted at detailed examination and to concentrate on differential diagnosis. Biochemical investigations like TSH, prolactin, testosterone , 17- hydroxyprogesterone levels must be done. The management includes controlling irregular menstruation, treatment of hirsutism, and management of infertility. The control of irregular menstruation can be with oral contraceptives , periodic progesterone withdrawal, metformin and lifestyle modification. Management of infertility includes clomiphene citrate, lifestyle modification, weight loss, metformin, thiazolidinediones . Management of insulin resistance also includes lifestyle modification, weight loss, metformin. Lifestyle modification is very essential. Physical activity and diet control measures will be effective. Treatment of PCO's is still a challenge. Researches are still evolving causes and treatment for this condition.