Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with inferior vena cava inv
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) often infiltrates to the adjacent major vasculatures; however, direct invasion of PDAC to the inferior vena cava (IVC) is uncommon.We report our experience with three cases of PDAC directly invading the IVC wall. All three patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy along with wedge resection of the IVC wall without severe postoperative complications. Histopathological studies revealed tumor infiltration to the adventitia of the IVC. All patients achieved negative surgical margins. One patient was still alive 26 months after surgery without tumor recurrence. Two patients experienced recurrence; one patient experienced liver metastasis but was still alive and in a stable condition without further tumor progression 12 months after surgery. Another patient experienced multiple liver metastasis 10 months after surgery and died 26 months after surgery...

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