Patient-reported outcomes in adults with type 1 diabetes in
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This secondary analysis of the SAGE study aimed to evaluate the association between glycemic control and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) across different age groups and regions.

SAGE was a multinational, cross-sectional, observational study in adults with T1DM. Data were collected at a single visit, analyzed according to predefined age groups (26–44, 45–64, and more than 65 years), and reported across different regions. PRO questionnaires were applied to assess hypoglycemia fear (Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II [HFS-II]), diabetes-related distress (Problem Areas In Diabetes [PAID]), insulin treatment satisfaction (Insulin Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire [ITSQ]), and diabetes-specific quality of life (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life [ADDQoL]). Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c target achievement (less than 7 % and individualized targets) with PRO scores.

-- PRO scores showed relatively low levels of diabetes-related emotional distress and fear of hypoglycemia, moderate to high treatment satisfaction, and low diabetes-related impact on quality of life.

-- Results were generally comparable across age groups with some regional variability.

-- Achievement of HbA1c less than 7 % target was associated with less worry about hypoglycemia, lower diabetes-related emotional distress, higher insulin treatment satisfaction, and higher quality of life.

-- Achievement of individualized HbA1c targets was associated with lower diabetes-related emotional distress and higher insulin treatment satisfaction.

Conclusively, better glycemic control was most closely associated with low emotional distress due to diabetes and high patient-reported insulin treatment satisfaction.