Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
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Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) is secondary to failure of normal circulatory transition at birth. It is a syndrome characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance that causes labile hypoxemia due to decreased pulmonary blood flow and right-to-left shunting of blood. Prompt diagnosis and management, including a timely referral to a tertiary care center can dramatically improve outcome. Its incidence has been reported as 1.9 per 1000 live births with mortality rate ranging between 4–33%. This syndrome complicates the course of about 10% of term and preterm infants with respiratory failure and remains a source of considerable morbidity and mortality. This review includes a discussion of fetal circulation and circulatory transition at birth, as well as the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and long term complications of PPHN.....

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823682/
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