Personalized Postprandial Glucose Response–Targeting Diet Ve
This study aimed to compare the clinical effects of a personalized postprandial-targeting (PPT) diet versus a Mediterranean (MED) diet on glycemic control and metabolic health in prediabetes.

Researchers randomly assigned adults with prediabetes (n = 225) to follow a MED diet or a PPT diet for a 6-month dietary intervention and additional 6-month follow-up. The PPT diet relies on a machine learning algorithm that integrates clinical and microbiome features to predict personal postprandial glucose responses. During the intervention, all participants were connected to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and self-reported dietary intake using a smartphone application.

-- Among 225 participants randomized (58.7% women, mean ± SD age 50 ± 7 years, BMI 31.3 ± 5.8 kg/m2, HbA1c, 5.9 ± 0.2% [41 ± 2.4 mmol/mol], fasting plasma glucose 114 ± 12 mg/dL [6.33 ± 0.67 mmol/L]), 200 (89%) completed the 6-month intervention.

-- A total of 177 participants also contributed 12-month follow-up data. Both interventions reduced the daily time with glucose levels more than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) and HbA1c levels, but reductions were significantly greater in PPT compared with MED.

-- The mean 6-month change in “time above 140” was -0.3 ± 0.8 h/day and -1.3 ± 1.5 h/day for MED and PPT, respectively.

-- The mean 6-month change in HbA1c was ?0.08 ± 0.19% (-0.9 ± 2.1 mmol/mol) and -0.16 ± 0.24% (-1.7 ± 2.6 mmol/mol) for MED and PPT, respectively.

-- The significant between-group differences were maintained at 12-month follow-up.

-- No significant differences were noted between the groups in a CGM-measured oral glucose tolerance test.

Conclusively, in this clinical trial in prediabetes, a PPT diet improved glycemic control significantly more than a MED diet as measured by daily time of glucose levels more than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) and HbA1c. These findings may have implications for dietary advice in clinical practice.