Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccines Decreased Acute Otitis Medi
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The aim of this Study was to calculate incidence rates of AOM episodes and recurrent AOM (rAOM) events in a highly immunized pediatric population during the pre- and post-pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) years to research period trends in all-cause acute otitis media (AOM) burden.

In this population-based study, AOM episodes and recurrent AOM (rAOM) cases were identified in children aged 0 to 10 years. Because a near sequential implementation of PCV-7/PCV-13 occurred within a 1-year period, AOM visits before and after PCVs introduction were compared. Children under 2 years of age were focused, who are the target population of PCVs and are at AOM peak age.

Results:
--805,389 AOM episodes, contributed by 270,137 children were identified . The median number of AOM episodes was 2.

--A downward trend of incidence rates of AOM episodes was observed during the post-PCV years in children under age 9 years.

--The largest decrease (21%) was observed in children less than 1 year, from 807/1,000 children during the pre-PCV years to 640/1,000 during the post-PCV years.

--An average annual decrease of -14/1,000 AOM episodes was calculated in children less than 1 year old (beta=-13.39).

--Of rAOM cases, documented in 84,237 children, 74% were in less than 2 years, and 55% were in boys.

--The risk to develop rAOM significantly decreased during the post-PCV years in children less than 2 years (HR=0.893).

Conclusively, AOM burden significantly decreased following PCVs introduction in highly immunized children.

Source: https://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(21)00351-6/fulltext?rss=yes
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