Pneumoperitoneum caused by tubo-ovarian abscess
Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract may present with abdominal pain and imaging demonstrating pneumoperitoneum. These findings usually require exploratory laparotomy for diagnosis and treatment.

Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) is a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease presenting as an encapsulated inflammatory mass, but it can occasionally involve other pelvic organs. TOA is most commonly seen in females of reproductive age.

Published in the Journal of Surgical Case Reports, the authors present a case of a 63-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain, fever and vomiting. Chest x rays and computed tomography scan revealed pneumoperitoneum.

Emergent exploratory laparotomy was performed, and the findings were consistent with TOA and intact bowel. The patient recovered well after surgery with antibiotic therapy.

Major takeaway:-
While pneumoperitoneum is mostly caused by perforation of the gastrointestinal tract, other possibilities such as gynecological complications should be considered.

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