Polyarteritis nodosa isolated to the testis and urinary blad
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis characterized by necrotizing inflammation of medium and small arteries. It can affect many organ systems; most often, it affects the peripheral nerves, skin, gastrointestinal system, muscles, and kidneys.

A previously healthy 54-year-old man presented with a several-month history of urinary retention and intermittent gross hematuria. In the course of his initial evaluation, he was found to have an enlarged prostate and was started on tamsulosin with improvement in his urinary symptoms. He noted the absence of his testicle on the right side for at least 30 years, consistent with cryptorchidism.

He subsequently underwent cystoscopy, which demonstrated a superficial-appearing mass at the dome of his bladder. A radical right orchiectomy and transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) were performed. Surprisingly, a pathologic examination revealed the presence of small and medium vessel vasculitis in both the urinary bladder and undescended testis

This is the first case reported in the literature of PAN affecting both the bladder and testis in the absence of systemic involvement. Moreover, this is also the first case of PAN reported in the setting of cryptorchidism.

Source: Journal of medical case reports

Read more: https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13256-019-2172-y
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