Post-primary pulmonary TB haemoptysis – When there is more t
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Haemoptysis is concerning for both patient and healthcare provider and points to the presence of severe underlying lung disease warranting investigation. Approximately 8% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infection will experience haemoptysis at some point during their life. The aetiology of haemoptysis in the setting of PTB is diverse and may occur during active or following prior PTB infection due to pulmonary complications. here described the case of a 33-year-old female who presented with massive haemoptysis on two separate occasions within a five-month period.

Her background history included PTB 6 years prior and subsequent post-TB bronchiectasis with a destroyed left lung, and the development of apical mycetoma's. Despite numerous pre-existing aetiologies that could account for haemoptysis in this patient, on this admission, a newly identified ruptured Rasmussen's aneurysm was identified by angiography and successfully treated with arterial embolization. This report serves to highlight the multitude of reasons for haemoptysis in a patient with post PTB lung destruction and the associated diagnostic challenges that may be present. In particular, we highlight the Rasmussen's aneurysm, a rare entity, as a hidden cause of haemoptysis, where despite extensive parenchymal lung disease identified on chest radiography, specialised imaging is needed to confirm the diagnosis.

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