Preconceptional and Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of death and hospitalization among young children worldwide. A Study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during preconceptional and prenatal periods on childhood pneumonia.

Pneumonia (N = 699) and Normal (N = 811) Children under the age of 14 were studied in a retrospective cohort analysis using a case-control method. Sex, age, birth season, gestational age, parity, mode of delivery, and parental atopy were all collected from the hospital system's electronic medical records.

The average of daily DTV during 1 year and 3 months before conception, as well as the entire pregnancy as well as the three trimesters, were used to measure maternal DTV exposure during preconceptional and prenatal cycles. A multiple logic regression model was used to investigate the connection between maternal exposure to outdoor DTV and childhood pneumonia.

--Childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with exposure to an increase in DTV during one year before conception and entire pregnancy, with ORs 2.53 and 1.85.

--A significant risk of pneumonia of DTV exposure during the first and second trimester of pregnancy was further identified.

--Sensitivity analysis showed that boys were more susceptible to the effect of prenatal exposure to outdoor DTV during pregnancy particularly in the first two trimesters compared to girls.

Finally, preconceptional and prenatal DTV exposure, especially during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, plays an important role in the development of childhood pneumonia.