Prenatal diagnosis of Fraser syndrome: a matter of life or d
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Abstract

Background
Fraser Syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive syndrome. It’s characterized primarily by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and urogenital malformation. Respiratory malformations are frequently present and not taken into account. To better manage childbirth at the time of delivery it is crucial to get prenatal diagnosis early on in the pregnancy.

Case presentation
We are reporting a female infant born by natural birth with 46,XX. She was characterized phenotypically by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, bilateral microtia and ambiguous genitalia. A prenatal ultrasound didn’t revealed or raised any suspects for the Fraser Syndrome. It only discovered a unilateral kidney agenesis. At birth the infant showed a severe respiratory distress, intubation was attempted but it failed. The baby was transferred to Santobono-Pausilipon III level hospital. A tracheostomy was performed successfully and saved her life. Computerized Tomography revealed left microphthalmos and a malformation like-coloboma into right ocular globe with cysts and a small calcification parietal anterior. Genetic test revealed the typical mutations in the gene FREM2 confirming the diagnosis of Fraser Syndrome. In her fourth month, after birth, the infant was subjected to an operation to reconstruct eyelids with a mucous membrane graft. The left renal function was normal. The baby showed a delay in motor milestones for visual impairment. At the 19th month fallow-up, during a magnetic resonance it was revealed: a normal morphologic brain development, a thin presence in the right optic nerve and the visual cortex were developing.

Conclusions
The prenatal diagnosis of Fraser Syndrome is frequently possible. The prenatal ultrasound can reveal features like polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios, echogenic lungs, renal abnormalities or agenesis and cryptophthalmos that are pathognomonic of the Fraser Syndrome. The health providers must keep in mind that if there are suspects of the Fraser Syndrome during prenatal exams, the infants could have a severe malformation in the respiratory tract.....

https://ijponline.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13052-015-0195-6
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