Primary orbital ganglioneuroblastoma in a child-A case repor
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Neuroblastic tumors (NTs) are one of the most common solid tumors in children, which are derived from primitive cells of the sympathetic nervous system and arise from the neural crest.

A 9-year-old girl was referred because she presented with progressive and recurring right orbital masses for 2 years. Five years ago, the patient underwent a surgical tumor excision of the right orbital region because of progressive right orbital masses for 1 year. The histopathological diagnosis was ganglioneuroma. After the surgery, the patient did not receive any other treatment, including chemotherapy. Proptosis of the right ocular globe and palpable superior orbital masses were the main clinical findings.

(CT) and (MRI) scans of her orbit were performed. CT showed a well-defined, well-circumscribed, and homogeneous extraconal soft tissue mass occupying most of the superior orbital area, measuring 2.2 cm × 1.8 cm, with evidence of bony destruction but no calcification. MRI revealed that there was a neoplasm of the right superior orbit that molding around the globe, measuring 2.1 cm × 1.4 cm × 1.9 cm with long T1 and T2 signals, and a contrast-enhanced MR image showed that there was a heterogeneous enhancement of the mass. The mass caused an inferotemporal right globe displacement.

Surgery was performed under general anesthesia through an anterior orbitotomy via a lid crease incision. Orbital exploration revealed a circumscribed lesion with red–yellow surface without necrosis. The mass was carefully separated from the superior rectus and optic nerves, and then completely resected. Incisional biopsy was performed postoperatively. Gross examination showed that the dimension of the mass was 2.2 cm × 2 cm × 1.5 cm. These characteristics were consistent with the diagnosis of GNB.

Postoperatively, there was no injury to her visual acuity and no limitation of eyeball movements of the right eye. The patient had a smooth course, and was on regular follow-up for 19 months and so far, has had no orbital mass recurrence.

Source: https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/Fulltext/2020/11060/Primary_orbital_ganglioneuroblastoma_in_a_child__A.28.aspx
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