Protective role of vitamin D against oxidative stress in dia
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is much evidence showing that a high level of mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the diabetic retina contributes in modifying cellular signaling and leads to retinal cell damage and finally to the development of DR pathogenesis. In the last few decades, it has been reported that vitamin D is involved in DR pathogenesis.

Vitamin D, traditionally known as an essential nutrient crucial in bone metabolism, has also been proven to be a very effective antioxidant. It has been demonstrated that it modulates the production of advanced glycosylated end products, as well as several pathways including protein kinase C, the polyol pathway leading to the reduction of free radical formation. It prevents the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), preventing the inflammatory response, acting as an immunomodulator, and modulates autophagy and apoptosis.

This review explores the molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D protects the eye from oxidative stress, in order to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation may be useful to mitigate the deleterious effects of free radicals in DR.