Pulmonary coinfection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Trop
This is a clinical case of pulmonary infection involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tropheryma whipplei in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The diagnosis was assisted by metagenomic next-generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

A 44-year-old Han Chinese inmate was transferred to the emergency department because of dry cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. The patient’s body temperature rose to 39.3 °C following empirical cephalosporin treatment for 1 week. The blood CD4+/CD8+ ratio was 0.7, suggesting immunodeficiency. Routine microbiological tests were performed, and tuberculosis interferon gamma release assays were positive. Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction was also positive.

Chest computed tomography scan revealed miliary nodules and ground-glass opacifications, which were in accordance with tuberculosis. To fully examine the etiology, we performed routine laboratory tests and metagenomic sequencing, the results of which indicated the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tropheryma whipplei. He was administered anti-tuberculosis regimen in combination with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The patient recovered, with chest computed tomography scan showing absorption of lesions.

Conclusively, compared with traditional diagnostic methods such as culture and serology, metagenomic next-generation sequencing has the advantage of detecting a wide array of microorganisms in a single test and therefore can be used for clinical diagnosis of rare pathogens and microbial coinfections. It is particularly useful for immunocompromised patients as they are more prone to infection by opportunistic microorganisms.

Source: https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13256-021-02899-y