Pulmonary disease caused by a newly identified mycobacterium
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Non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is becoming a significant health burden. Recent advances in analysis techniques have allowed the accurate identification of previously unknown NTM species. Here, we report a case of NTM-PD caused by a newly identified mycobacteria in an immunocompetent patient.

A 44-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to the frequent aggravation of her chronic respiratory symptoms, with NTM-PD-compatible computed tomography findings. Unidentified mycobacterium was repeatedly isolated from respiratory specimens and we diagnosed her as NTM-PD of unidentified mycobacterium.

Subsequent whole-genome analysis revealed that the unidentified mycobacterium was a novel mycobacterium genetically close to Mycolicibacterium mucogenicum. She was started with combination therapy with clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, amikacin, and imipenem/cilastatin, referring to drug sensitivity test results and observed its effect on M. mucogenicum infection. Her symptoms and radiological findings improved significantly.

Conclusively, authors report a case of NTM-PD caused by a newly identified mycobacteria, Mycolicibacterium toneyamachuris, genetically close to M. mucogenicum. This pathogenic mycobacterium showed different characteristics from M. mucogenicum about clinical presentation and drug sensitivity. The clinical application of genomic sequencing will advance the identification and classification of pathogenic NTM species, and enhance the understanding of mycobacterial diseases.

Source: https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-020-05626-y
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