Recurrent stroke secondary to late patent foramen ovale-clos
Percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure has been well established in the secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke with overall low rates of procedural complications. One such complication is PFO closure device thrombus formation which is now rarely reported with newer generation devices.

Researchers present the unusual case of a 59-year-old woman with myelofibrosis who developed late-onset recurrent embolic strokes related to Amplatzer PFO closure device thrombus whilst therapeutically anticoagulated on Warfarin. Surgical management was deemed too high risk and our patient was conservatively managed with enoxaparin. Serial transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a reduction in thrombus size and the patient had no further neurological events.

Overall, the risk of serious complications following percutaneous PFO closure, such as device-associated thrombus, remains low. The risk of thrombus formation in patients with hypercoagulable states is not well characterized. Despite good evidence for the efficacy in preventing recurrent cryptogenic stroke, the role of PFO closure in addition to anticoagulation is unclear. Given this uncertain benefit of PFO closure in anticoagulated patients and the unclear risk profile, patient selection, and thorough pre-procedural evaluation are vital when assessing the appropriateness of percutaneous PFO closure.