Relation of Gestational age & birth weight on Neurocognitive
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The length of pregnancy and birthweight were found to be positively related to adolescent neurodevelopment. A Study was conducted to investigate the association between gestational age (GA), birthweight, and birthweight adjusted for GA, with domains of neurocognitive development and behavioral problems in adolescents.

Data from a long-term follow-up of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years born to women previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation were used. A battery of neurodevelopmental tests were administered to measure adolescent general intelligence, executive function, and behavioral problems.

The INTERGROWTH-21st newborn anthropometric standards were used to derive birthweight-for-GA z-scores (BWGAz). The shape of relationships were assessed using restricted cubic splines and estimated the associations of GA, birthweight, and BWGAZ with adolescent development using multivariable linear regressions.

Results:
--Among adolescents studied (n=421), higher GA (per week), birthweight (per 100 grams), and BWGAz (per SD) were linearly associated with higher intelligence score (adjusted standardized mean difference (aSMD): 0.05 SD, 0.04 SD and 0.09 SD respectively).

--Birthweight and BWGAz, but not GA, were also associated with improved executive function.

--Low birthweight (less than 2500 grams) was associated with lower intelligence and executive function scores.

--Associations between birthweight and executive function were stronger among adolescents born to women with higher education.

Finally, the length of pregnancy and birthweight were found to be positively related to adolescent neurodevelopment. These results indicate that strategies aimed at improving birth outcomes can also have a positive impact on adolescent cognitive function.

Source: https://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(21)00387-5/fulltext?rss=yes
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