Relation of cardiac adipose tissue to coronary calcification
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Cardiac adipose tissue may have local paracrine effects on epicardial arteries and the underlying myocardium, promoting calcification and affecting myocardial microcirculation.

This study explored whether the total amount of cardiac adipose tissue was associated with coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and myocardial flow reserve in persons with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.

The role of cardiac adipose tissue in cardiovascular disease in diabetes remains unclear.

Three groups were studied: (1) 30 controls, (2) 60 persons with type 1 diabetes and (3) 60 persons with type 2 diabetes. The three groups were matched for sex and age. The three groups derived from retrospective analysis of two clinical studies. All underwent cardiac 82Rb positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning. Cardiac adipose tissue volume (the sum of epicardial and pericardial fat), CAC, and myocardial flow reserve (ratio of pharmacological stress flow and rest flow) were evaluated using semiautomatic software. We applied linear regression to assess the association between cardiac adipose tissue, CAC and myocardial flow reserve.

Results: Mean (SD) cardiac adipose tissue volume was 99 (61) mL in the control group, 106 (78) mL in the type 1 diabetes group and 228 (97) mL in the type 2 diabetes group. Cardiac adipose tissue was positively associated with body mass index in all three groups (p ≤ 0.02). In the controls, cardiac adipose tissue was positively associated with CAC score (p = 0.008) and negatively associated with myocardial flow reserve (p = 0.005). However, cardiac adipose tissue was not associated with CAC or myocardial flow reserve in the groups including persons with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (p ≥ 0.50).

Conclusively, In contrast to what was found in healthy controls, it could not establish a relation between cardiac adipose tissue and coronary calcification or myocardial microvascular function in person with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The role of cardiac adipose tissue in cardiovascular disease in diabetes remains unclear.

Source: https://cardiab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12933-020-0995-x
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