Relationship between patellofemoral finite helical axis and
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A Study was conducted to manage patellofemoral joint disorders. The purpose of this study is to quantify the location and orientation of the patellar finite helical axis (FHA), both in vivo and non-invasively at various flexion angles, and evaluate the relationship of the FHA and the trans-epicondylar axis (TEA).

18 unilateral knees had magnetic resonance (MR) photos taken at complete extension, 30°, 60°, 90°, and maximum angle of knee flexion. MR images were used to construct 3-D models of the knee joint at various flexion angles, which were then used to measure patellar tracking and FHA using a spline interpolation algorithm. The FHA monitoring was quantified using a coordinate scheme centered on the TEA. The position and orientation of the patellar FHA were studied using six parameters.

Results:
--The average patellar FHA drew an L-shaped tracking on the midsagittal plane moving from the posteroinferior to the anterosuperior side of the TEA with knee flexion.

--Before 90° flexion, the patellar rotational radius decreased slightly, with an average value of 5.65 ± 1.09 cm. During 20° to 90° knee flexion, the average angle between the patellar FHA and the TEA was approximately 10° and that between the FHA and the coronal plane was maintained at about 0°, while that between the FHA and the level plane fluctuated between -10° and 10°.

Finally, during knee flexion, this study quantitatively recorded the position and orientation of the patellar FHA. In both position and direction, the patellar FHA was similar to but not identical to the femoral TEA, and the patellar rotational radius decreased significantly with knee flexion.

Source: https://josr-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13018-021-02328-2
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