Research shows that smokers have a higher risk of committing
There is an association between smoking and suicide. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between smoking and suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, suicide attempts, and death by suicide).

Investigators searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, TRIP, and SCIENCE DIRECT databases for relevant articles on this topic. Twenty prospective cohort studies involving 2,457,864 participants were included in this meta-analysis.

- Compared with never smokers, former and current smokers had an increased risk of death by suicide, ideation, and attempted suicide.

- Moreover, compared to never smokers, current smoker women had an increased risk of taking their own life than current smoker men.

- Furthermore, smoking exposure was associated with a 1.74-fold increased risk of suicidal behavior (death by suicide, ideation, planning, or attempts).

Thus, because of the prospective relationship between smoking and suicidal behaviors, smoking should be included in suicide risk scales as a useful and easy item to evaluate suicide risk.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health