Researchers find frustration is an additional factor of addi
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A team of researchers has pioneered a new way to study frustration as a factor in substance use disorders. The study was published in the medical journal Psychopharmacology.

Traditional addiction research has focused on three aspects of substance use disorders: craving, impulsivity, or habit. Scientists hypothesized that a fourth factor, frustration, could also lead to an escalation of drug use and addiction.

In order to address this need, the studies use a rat model to focus on frustration-related behavior in natural reward and addiction-related behavioral procedures. In these studies, bar-press durations increase when rats are in a state of frustration during self-administration of sucrose, fentanyl, or cocaine.

These data also show that average bar-press durations do not correlate with the number of bar presses, meaning that press duration is an independent measurement that represents a behavioral construct distinct from craving, which is typically measured with a number of bar presses. Essentially, these results support that bar press durations can be used as a real-time measure of frustration as a 4th major facet of addiction-related behavior, adding to craving, impulsivity, and habit.

Source: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05742-2
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