Researchers use MRI to show brain changes, differences in ch
A multilayer community detection of resting-state fMRI data in 180 children with ADHD and 180 typically developing children (TDC) to identify alterations in dynamic brain reconfiguration in children with ADHD. We specifically evaluated MR-derived neural flexibility, which is thought to underlie cognitive flexibility, or the ability to selectively switch between mental processes. Significantly decreased neural flexibility was observed in the ADHD group at both the whole brain and sub-network levels, particularly for the default mode network, attention-related networks, executive function-related networks, and primary networks. Furthermore, the subjects with ADHD who received medication exhibited significantly increased neural flexibility when compared to subjects with ADHD who were medication naïve, and their neural flexibility was not statistically different from the TDC group. Finally, regional neural flexibility was capable of differentiating ADHD from TDC and predicting ADHD severity using clinical measures of symptom severity. In conclusion, the present study found that neural flexibility is altered in children with ADHD and demonstrated the potential clinical utility of neural flexibility to identify children with ADHD, as well as to monitor treatment responses and disease severity.