Rhabdomyosarcoma in a pediatric patient: A rare case report
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a tumor of skeletal muscle origin, is the second most common soft tissue sarcoma encountered in childhood after osteosarcoma. The common sites of occurrence are the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, retroperitoneum, and to a lesser extent, the extremities. Site predilections in the oral cavity are a soft palate, maxillary sinus and alveolus, posterior mandibular region, cheek and lip, and possibly tongue.

The following case has been published in the journal Contemporary clinical dentistry. A 1-year-old boy was referred with painful swelling in his mouth. On history taking, his parents reported that the swelling was present for 6–7 months which was earlier small and painless but now has increased in size up to 5 cm × 6 cm.

Clinical examination showed severe facial asymmetry. A mobile tooth is present in upper left posterior maxillary ridge surrounded by large, firm, and tender swelling. The skin had appeared stretched and inflamed.

The opening of the mouth was partly restricted. Intra-oral examination revealed a 5 cm × 6 cm, red, firm mass with grayish areas of central necrosis, covering the left side of the maxillary gingiva, from the canine to the second molar region.

CTconfirmed the presence of an extensive infiltrative lesion accompanied by severe bone destruction and displacement of adjacent structures. An incisional biopsy was made. Histopathological analysis of the hematoxylin and eosin stained material showed clusters of small round cells with hyper chromatic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm separated by fibrovascular septae. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for vimentin, desmin, myoglobin, and muscle-specific actin.

A diagnosis of oral RMS was established on the basis of the history, clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings.

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