Right cardiac involvement in lung diseases: a multimodality
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Lung diseases are among the main healthcare issues in the general population, having a high burden of morbidity and mortality. The cardiovascular system has a key role in patients affected by respiratory disorders. More specifically, the right ventricle (RV) enables the impaired lung function to be overcome in an initial stage of disease process, reducing the severity of dyspnea. In addition, two of the main causes of death in this setting are RV failure and sudden cardiac death (SCD).

Echocardiography is regarded as a useful and easily available tool in assessing RV function. Several non?invasive echocardiographic parameters of elevated pulmonary pressures and RV function have been proposed. The combination of different parameters and imaging methods is paramount and researches regarding RV impairment using these indices has been specifically addressed in relation to the chronic obstructive and restrictive lung disease in order to guide the clinicians in the management of these patients.

Cardiac involvement in lung diseases is often observed, and RV changes are reported also in early stages of pulmonary diseases.The role of right ventricle in chronic respiratory disease patients has to be evaluated in detail to describe the response to therapy and the degree of disease progression through multimodality and advanced imaging techniques.

The aim of this review is to describe the different pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac impairment in primary lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and sarcoidosis) and to summarize the role of cardiac multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and the prognosis of these diseases.

Source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/joim.13179?af=R
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