Risk of Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in offspring
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Paternal and maternal mental health problems are predictors of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in offspring, according to epidemiological evidence. In adolescent offspring aged 17, researchers looked at the connection between maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as paternal emotional issues, and CD and ODD symptoms.

The Raine Research, a birth cohort study based in Western Australia, provided the data. The Child Behavior Checklist's DSM-oriented scales were used to assess CD and ODD symptoms in offspring aged 17 years (CBCL).

When the offspring were 10 years old, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to evaluate maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, and a self-reported questionnaire was used to assess paternal emotional issues. The relations were investigated using a negative binomial regression model.

Results:
--Adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found an increased risk of CD symptoms in the offspring of mothers with anxiety [RR = 1.76], depressive [RR = 1.40], and comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms [RR = 2.24].

--An increased risk of ODD symptoms in offspring of mothers with depressive [RR = 1.24] was found , but not anxiety symptoms [RR = 1.23]. No associations were seen with paternal emotional problems.

Conclusively, the study showed that adolescents whose mothers reported anxiety, depressive, and comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms had a higher risk of CD and ODD symptoms at age 17.

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022395621002065
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