Risk of incident obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with t
UK primary care database, The Health Improvement Network (THIN) was used to perform a retrospective cohort study between January 1995 and January 2018 comparing sleep apnoea incidence between patients with type 1 diabetes (exposed) and without type 1 diabetes (unexposed) (matched for age, sex, BMI and general practice). The outcome was incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea. Baseline covariates and characteristics were assessed at the start of the study based on the most recent value recorded prior to the index date. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios, based on a complete-case analysis.

In total, 34,147 exposed and 129,500 matched unexposed patients were included. The median follow-up time was 5.43 years ((IQR 2.19–10.11), and the mean BMI was 25.82 kg/m2 (SD 4.33). The adjusted HR for incident obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with type 1 diabetes vs those without type 1 diabetes was 1.53 (95% CI 1.25, 1.86; p<0.001). Predictors of incident obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with type 1 diabetes were older age, male sex, obesity, being prescribed antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs, atrial fibrillation and depression.


Individuals with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of obstructive sleep apnoea compared with people without diabetes. Clinicians should suspect obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with type 1 diabetes if they are old, have obesity, are male, have atrial fibrillation or depression, or if they are taking lipid-lowering or antihypertensive drugs.

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-022-05714-5
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