Role of Corneal Confocal Microscopy in Children with type 1
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A Study was conducted to assess whether alterations in stromal keratocyte density are related to loss of corneal nerve fibres in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Corneal confocal microscopy was performed on 20 participants with T1DM and 20 age-matched healthy controls. The morphology of the corneal sub-basal nerve and the corneal keratocyte density (KD) were measured.

Results:
--Corneal nerve fibre density (CNFD), corneal nerve branch density, corneal nerve fibre length (CNFL) and inferior whorl length (IWL) were lower in children with T1DM compared with healthy controls.

--Anterior and mid stromal KDs were lower with no difference in posterior KD (PKD) in children with T1DM compared with controls.

--Age, duration of diabetes, height, weight and body mass index did not correlate with anterior (AKD), mid (MKD) or PKD. Inverse correlations were found between glycated haemoglobin and PKD (r=-0.539), bilirubin with MKD (r=-0.540) and PKD (r=-0.531) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol with MKD (r=-0.583).

--CNFD, CNFL and IWL did not correlate with AKD, MKD or PKD.

Conclusively, this study demonstrates a reduction in corneal nerves and anterior and mid stromal KD in children with T1DM, but no correlation was observed between corneal nerve and keratocyte cell loss.

Source: https://bjo.bmj.com/content/early/2021/04/29/bjophthalmol-2021-319057?rss=1
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