Role of Ultrasound in Evaluation of Developmental Dysplasia
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In neonates, a dislocated hip may be easily reduced by simple manipulation during clinical examination, and stabilization occurs as the soft tissues tighten. An unstable or dislocatable hip may also stabilize spontaneously. When the femoral head is aligned with the center of the acetabulum, the dysplastic acetabulum often normalizes within the first months of life. If the hip remains dislocated, soft tissue contractures develop rapidly, and surgery is likely to be required to obtain and maintain joint reduction. The longer the hip is left in an abnormal position, the more the anatomy changes, developing abnormalities of both the proximal femur and the acetabulum.Developmental dysplasia of the hip affects 1% - 3% of all newborns; it ranges from mild acetabular dysplasia with a stable hip to a frankly dislocated hip with a dysmorphic femoral head and acetabulum.Plain radiographs are of limited value for diagnosis in the newborn child because the femoral head and acetabulum are largely cartilaginous. Ultrasound (USG) scanning is the investigation of choice to evaluate DDH in infants younger than six months of age and is useful to diagnose more subtle forms of the disorder when the clinical exam is equivocal....

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