Sardines Linked to Reduced Type 2 Diabetes Risk
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Older people with prediabetes who followed a diet rich in sardines for 1 year show significant reductions in risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those placed on a similarly healthy diet but without the sardines, results from a new randomized trial show.

Fish could play a role in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D) but there has been little specification about the type of fish and the preventive mechanism involved in its health claim. The sardine is a source of omega-3 and taurine that, in isolation or in synergy, would produce T2D-delaying through different molecular mechanism.

The consumption of twice a week of sardine, during one year would reduce T2D-developing risk in a population with prediabetes (preDM) and old age.

152 subjects with fasting glucose between 100-124 mg/dL aged more than 65 yo were recruited from three primary care centers in Barcelona and were randomly distributed among two interventional groups: control group (CG) and sardine group (SG). Both groups received same T2D-prevention nutritional during a year but only SG had to add 200 g of sardine per week. All variables were collected before to start and at the end of the diet.

Results:
-- 152 people were randomized into CG (n=77) and SG (n=75) with 18 and 12 drop outs respectively.

-- Subjects in SG, significantly compared to CG, decreased percentage classified-individuals in a very high risk group to develop T2D according to FINDRISC.

-- In addition to increasing HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin and decreasing triglycerides and blood pressure, SG showed a lower HOMA-IR.

-- The consumption of sardine characteristics nutrients as omega-3, EPA and DHA, vitamin D, fluorine and taurine were higher for SG.

-- These results agreed with the increased of taurine, fatty acid (FA) omega-3 and bile acids circulating metabolites.

-- Changes erythrocyte membrane FA were detected only in SG with a decrease of 5 omega-6 FA and an increase of 3 omega-3 FA types.

Authors conclude that a year T2D-prevention diet with sardine supplementation has a greater protective effect against developing T2D and CV events.

Source: https://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(21)00153-9/fulltext
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