Scientists Build Whole Functioning Thymus From Human Cells:
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In a study, published in Nature Communications, the scientists rebuilt thymi using stem cells taken from patients who had to have the organ removed during surgery. When transplanted into mice, the bioengineered thymi were able to support the development of mature and functional human T lymphocytes.

To rebuild this organ, the team collected thymi from patients and in the laboratory, grew thymic epithelial cells and thymic interstitial cells from the donated tissue into many colonies of billions of cells. The next step was to obtain a structural scaffold of thymi, which they could repopulate with the thymic cells they had cultured.

They then injected the organ scaffolds with up to six million human thymic epithelial cells as well as interstitial cells from the colonies they had grown in the lab. The cells grew onto the scaffolds and after only five days, the organs had developed to a similar stage as those seen in nine-week old foetuses.

Finally, the team implanted these thymi into mice. They found that in over 75% of cases, the thymi were able to support the development of human lymphocytes. It is possible that we could overcome this by also transplanting a thymus regrown from cells taken from the thymus of the organ donor, said researcher.

Source:
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20082-7
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