Sex Differences Found in Post-CABG Mortality: JAMA Study
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Sex-related differences in the outcome of using multiple arterial grafts during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remain uncertain.

This study aimed to compare the outcomes of the use of multiple arterial grafts vs a single arterial graft during CABG for women and men. This statewide cohort study used data from New York’s Cardiac Surgery Reporting System and New York’s Vital Statistics file on 63?402 patients undergoing CABG from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2014. Statistical analysis was performed from January 10 to August 20, 2020.

Mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, repeated revascularization, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (composite of mortality, AMI, and stroke), and major adverse cardiac event (composite of mortality, AMI, or repeated revascularization) were compared among propensity-matched patients and stratified by the risk of long-term mortality.

-- Of the 63402 patients (48?155 men; mean age, 69.9 years) in the study, women had worse baseline characteristics than men for most of the explored variables.

-- Propensity matching yielded a total of 9512 male pairs and 1860 female pairs. At 7 years of follow-up, mortality was lower among men who underwent multiple arterial grafting but not women who underwent multiple arterial grafting.

-- When stratified by the estimated risk of death, the use of multiple arterial grafts was associated with better survival and a lower rate of a major adverse cardiac event among low-risk, but not high-risk, patients of both sexes, and the risk cutoff was different for men and women.

Conclusively, this study suggests that women have a worse preoperative risk profile than men. Multiple arterial grafting is associated with better outcomes among low-risk, but not high-risk, patients, and the risk cutoffs differ between sexes. These data highlight the need for new studies on the outcome of multiple arterial grafts in women.