Sleeve Fracture of the Patella in a Shield
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Introduction
Sleeve fractures of the patella are rare fractures that only occur in children. The diagnosis is difficult both clinically and radiologically since the distal bony fragment may be too small to be detectable by radiography. A high-riding patella and hemarthrosis are important signs of sleeve fractures.

Case Presentation
A 12-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room after having felt a severe pain in his left knee on kicking the ground while skateboarding earlier that day. Knee swelling, tense hemarthrosis, and periarticular tenderness were noted. On physical examination, an extension lag of 15 was observed. The active range of motion of the injured knee was 45-90° of flexion. Radiography showed an avulsion fracture of the lower pole of the patella and a high-riding patella. At the next day after the injury, we performed open reduction and internal fixation surgery. Open reduction with transosseous tunneling and cerclage wiring was performed because the distal bony fragment was too small for tension band wiring to be used. At 9 months after surgery, there was no extension lag, and the active range of motion of the injured knee was 0-140° of flexion. Callus formation over the fracture site and bone union was confirmed, and the cerclage wire was removed. To date, he had no further symptoms and has been able to carry out all types of physical activities, including skateboarding.

Conclusion
Although sleeve fractures in children are uncommon, it should be considered a possibility in children with a chief complaint of pain around the knee. Open reduction and internal fixation was effective in the treatment of sleeve fracture of the patella.

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