Smartphone-based evaluation of the optic nerve head
Clinical assessment of the optic disc using the smartphone and an adapter has been noted in few observations. This technique, published in the Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, is both simple and cost-effective and in addition, the technique can be disseminated to medical colleagues from other specialties to document fundus findings in cases where immediate assessment by an ophthalmologist is not possible.

In the first setting, the optic nerve head findings are documented using a smartphone, a high magnifying lens that is clipped over the camera of the smartphone and a 90 D lens. The images are captured after adequate pupillary dilatation, and with the patient looking straight ahead.

For examining the patient's right eye, a 90 D lens held in the left hand of the examiner is placed close to the patient's eye and phone clipped with the magnifying lens is slowly moved forward and pictures are obtained. Following are a few examples of the clinical conditions captured using this technique: (1) Glaucomatous optic disc cupping, (2) normal disc, (3) temporal crescent, and (4) papillitis

In the second technique, the direct ophthalmoscope and the smartphone are used together to assess the optic disc and macular pathology. The smartphone camera is fixed directly onto the direct ophthalmoscope eye aperture (with glue or tape) and the scope is slowly moved toward the patient's eye. Even though it is possible to appreciate the findings in un-dilated pupil, dilation is necessary to facilitate capturing the images with ease.

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