Streptococcus pneumoniae primary peritonitis mimicking acute
Primary peritonitis without an identifiable intra-abdominal source is extremely rare in healthy individuals; it is commonly seen in cases of nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, ascites, immunosuppression, and inflamed peritoneum due to pre-existing autoimmune and oncological conditions.

Journal of Medical Case Reports 2019 13:126 presents the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman operated on due to acute abdomen with a provisional diagnosis of acute appendicitis. During the operation a small amount of free intra-abdominal fluid was found. Her uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes were macroscopically normal. Therefore, with the suspicion of appendicitis, appendectomy was performed. Her blood cultures were negative while peritoneal fluid was positive for capsulated form of Streptococcus pneumoniae. A 30-day follow-up was performed and she was asymptomatic without any sign of infection.

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