Study finds, 4 subtypes of childhood allergic rhinitis ident
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Atopic rhinitis (AR) in children has a wide range of symptoms. The goal was to use data-driven methodologies to uncover unique phenotypes among children with AR and determine their relationship to symptom patterns, allergy sensitization, and comorbidities.

Researchers recruited 510 children with physician-diagnosed AR, of whom 205 had asthma. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify latent structure within the data set using 17 variables (allergic conjunctivitis, eczema, asthma, family history of asthma, family history of allergic rhinitis, skin sensitization to 8 common allergens, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy).

--A four-class solution was selected as the optimal model based on statistical fit.

--The labeled latent classes as: (1) AR with grass mono-sensitization and conjunctivitis (n=361); (2) AR with house dust mite sensitization and asthma (n=75); (3) AR with pet and grass polysensitization and conjunctivitis (n=35) and (4) AR among children with tonsils and adenoids removed (n=39).

--Perennial AR was significantly more common among children in Class 2 (OR 5.83) and Class 3 (OR 2.88).

--Mild and intermittent AR symptoms were significantly more common in children in Class 2 compared to those in Class 1. AR was more severe in Class 1 compared to other 3 classes, indicating that upper respiratory symptoms are more severe among children with isolated seasonal rhinitis, than in those with rhinitis and coexisting asthma.

Finally, four phenotypes among school-aged children with AR were discovered, each of which was linked to a unique set of clinical symptoms and comorbidities.