Study finds, Association Between Risk Factors for Metabolic
Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglycerides and/or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hyperglycemia are all risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Researchers looked into risk variables for metabolic syndrome in a dry eye cohort with and without meibomian gland disease in this study (MGD).

This retrospective case-control study identified patients with a known diagnosis of dry eye disease with and without MGD. Males and females were matched for age, smoking status, race, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Patient demographics, anthropometric measurements, medical history, clinical findings, and serologies were analyzed.

--MGD was not associated with BMI, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension or hyperlipidemia in this dry eye cohort. MGD was associated with male sex and increasing age.

--While increasing age was weakly correlated with decreased low density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum lipid levels were not associated with MGD.

Conclusively, it was found that risk factors for metabolic syndrome are not specifically associated with an increase in MGD when compared to non-MGD dry eye subjects. While risk factors for metabolic syndrome are associated with dry eye disease, they likely reflect a chronic systemic state of low-grade inflammation that negatively impacts the function of both lacrimal and meibomian glands.