Study finds, Association between pain intensity, pain catast
This study aimed to examine the structural relationship between pain catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and pain intensity in patients with frozen shoulder.

Participants who were diagnosed with frozen shoulder were recruited from a single orthopedic clinic. Patients aged 18 years or older, who had been symptomatic for less than 1 year and reported localized pain in one shoulder, experienced night pain, and had restricted active and passive shoulder motions were included.

Pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale (NRS)), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)), and self-efficacy (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ)) were measured at the first examination, and the relationship was examined using the Bayesian estimation method.

--93 patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder were included in this study.

--The convergence index potential scale reduction was below 1.1, and the convergence of the estimate was confirmed.

--The posterior prediction p value was 0.25, DIC = 1328.705, and BIC = 1356.872; the validity of the fit of the model was confirmed.

--The path coefficients from the NRS to the PSEQ, from the NRS to the PCS, and from the PSEQ to the PCS scores were ? 0.232, 0.259 and ? 0.504, respectively.

In conclusion, these findings suggest that pain intensity increases the likelihood of chronic pain, including pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy, and that in patients with frozen shoulder, pain catastrophizing rises by lowering self-efficacy.