Study finds, Kawasaki disease associated pulmonary involveme
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A Study was conducted to describe clinical and radiological features of infants with KD-associated pulmonary involvement (KD-PI). Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited multisystemic vasculitis of unknown cause. Pulmonary involvement has been reported in case reports and limited small case series, which is not commonly recognized, especially in younger patients less than 1 year.

Infants patients with KD-PI were matched 1:1 based on current age and sex with KD patients without clinically apparent PI. Clinical data were collected from inpatient or outpatient medical records, including clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters, radiological findings, management, and prognosis.

--Of 248 infant patients with KD, 34 presented with KD-PI. Of these, 22 had only subtle respiratory symptoms.

--Compared to KD controls, patients with KD-PI had significantly higher mean Kobayashi score, more had extremely high C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels, and more were administered with adjuvant corticosteroids as initial therapy.

--Abnormal chest radiological findings included peripheral consolidation (97.0%), localized pleural thickening (73.0%), lobular septal thickening (70.6%), ground-glass opacities (55.9%), linear opacities (35.3%), and pleural effusion (20.6%).

--No statistical difference was observed in the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) between two groups either in the acute phase or follow-up phase.

Conclusively, despite higher levels of inflammation in KD-PI, higher usage of adjuvant corticosteroids during first therapy may result in no difference in CAAs between the two groups. These findings imply that adjuvant corticosteroids may be advantageous in this population.