Study finds, Risk factors for development of Intraretinal fl
A Study was conducted to identify the risk factors of intraretinal fluid (IRF) development during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

A total of 425 treatment-naive patients with neovascular AMD who completed 24 months of follow-up were enrolled. All patients were treated with an initial series of 3-monthly loading doses of anti-VEGF injections, followed by further injections as required. Baseline characteristics were evaluated using multivariate modeling to determine the potential risk factors for IRF development.

--IRF occurred in 40.2% of all participants during the maintenance phase after the loading injections.

--The development of IRF during follow-up negatively affected visual outcomes, irrespective of the presence of IRF at baseline.

--Multivariate analysis showed that larger areas of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), the presence of IRF at baseline (OR, 5.469), and the presence of fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment (PED) (OR, 2.043) were associated with an increased risk of IRF during follow-up.

--Type 1 (OR, 2.005) and type 2 macular neovascularization (MNV) (OR, 2.643) were also associated with a higher risk of IRF than aneurysmal type 1 MNV/polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

To summarize, regardless of the presence of IRF at baseline, the development of IRF after anti-VEGF treatment for neovascular AMD has extra unfavorable consequences on visual outcomes. CNV size, the presence of IRF at baseline, the presence of fibrovascular PED, and the MNV subtype may all have an impact on the development of IRF with anti-VEGF therapy.