Study finds, Sleep and Behavior 24 Months After Early Tonsil
The Preschool Obstructive Sleep Apnea Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy study is a prospective randomized controlled study of children aged 3 to 5 years. This follow-up evaluated postoperative outcomes 24 months after randomization.

Baseline, 12-month, and 24-month assessments included intellectual ability, polysomnography, audiology, a pediatric sleep questionnaire, the parent rating scale of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning.

--In total, 117 of 190 children, 61.6% of those initially randomly assigned, attended 24-month follow-up; 62 of 99 were assigned T/A within 2 months (eT/A); and 55 of 91 were assigned to T/A after the 12-month follow-up (T/A12).

--Intellectual ability, did not differ according to the timing of T/A.

--Exploratory analysis revealed changes in both groups after T/A, including fewer children having day sleeps, improved symptom scores, improved behavior T-scores, and improved polysomnography.

--The eT/A group revealed temporary postoperative improvement of Woodcock-Johnson III subscales and behavioral withdrawal.

In particular, T/A for mild obstructive sleep apnea led to large improvements in sleep and behavior in preschool-aged children, regardless of the timing of surgery.