Successful endoscopic surgical treatment of pleuroperitoneal
Pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). If a fistula does not close with conservative treatment, surgical repair is required. However, approximately half of these patients are forced to shift from PD to hemodialysis. Although it is important to confirm the site of the fistula to achieve a successful surgical treatment, this identification is more difficult in pediatric patients than in adults.

Here reported two infantile cases of severe PPC associated with PD. In both cases, the age at onset was less than 2 years, and right-sided pleural effusion with dyspnea was observed. PPC was diagnosed by the change in color of the pleural fluid after the injection of a dye into the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneal scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography (SPECT/CT) were performed, and these were effective in locating the fistula site. Endoscopic surgery (video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and laparoscopic surgery) was performed. Indocyanine green (ICG), which was injected into the abdominal cavity, showed the exact site of the fistula. The fistula was successfully closed by attaching an absorbable sheet to it from the thoracic side and an autograft (the falciform ligament) to it from the abdominal side in one patient. In the other patient, the fistula site was resected and sutured, and reinforced with an absorbable sheet. In both cases, PD was resumed without any complication.