Successful treatment of aortic valve endocarditis caused by
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Enterococcus casseliflavus is rarely isolated from human specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on its detailed treatment course and prognosis. Here, we present the first known case of E. casseliflavus endocarditis with a detailed treatment course.

An 86-year-old Japanese woman was transferred to the emergency department with dyspnoea, wheezing, and lumbago. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic kidney disease, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and rectal carcinoma. Physical examination revealed expiratory wheezes and a diastolic murmur (Levine 2/6) at the 4th right sternal border. Chest radiography revealed bilateral interstitial opacities and slight cardiac dilatation. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated the presence of mobile vegetation with perforation, prolapse, and regurgitation of the aortic valve.

With a suspicion of infective endocarditis, we started administering intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam. Thereafter, blood cultures identified E. casseliflavus through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial treatment was then switched to ampicillin plus gentamicin. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement on the thirteenth hospital day. She was administered intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin for 6 weeks. The patient was discharged 8 weeks after admission.

This case demonstrated that E. casseliflavus could cause infective endocarditis, which can be successfully treated with a 6-week regimen of ampicillin and gentamicin in combination with proper surgical treatment.