"TEE or not to TEE?"
Perioperative hemodynamic management during major cardiac surgery can be challenging. Several physiological parameters need to be monitored. Basic monitoring is best supplemented by advanced systems. Multiple modalities of advanced monitoring have been tried, with variable success, but consistent benefit has not been demonstrated with their use. Amongst the new techniques, Trans-Esophageal Echocardiography (TEE) is considered most promising. The ability of TEE to provide direct, real-time visualization of cardiac structures, during cardiac surgery, gives it a distinct edge over the other modes of monitoring. The use of TEE in both adults and children has provided a large amount of new information, previously not available. An increasing number of complex interventional cardiology procedures are possible today under TEE guidance...