TYPHOID FEVER πŸ€’ It’s otherwise known as Enteric Fever πŸ€’
Dr. Atul Chowdhury
TYPHOID FEVER πŸ€’

It’s otherwise known as Enteric Fever πŸ€’.

CAUSATIVE ORGANISM:-
Salmonella typhi (paratyphoid:-Salmonella paratyphi).

TRANSMISSION
Feaco-oral, Sexual transmission

INCUBATION PERIOD
10-14 days.

SYMPTOMS
Fever that gradually increases over several days; Fever, headache, relative bradycardia, splenomegaly, cough, rose spots, and diarrhea or constipation; Constipation early & diarrhea late in disease.

COMPLICATION
Serious complications include intestinal hemorrhage and perforation that usually occur 2-3 weeks into the illness. Possible complications include blood in stool, cholecystitis, intestinal perforation, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, meningitis, skin abscesses, glomerulitis, genitourinary tract infection, and shock. Intestinal hemorrhage and perforation are the major complications seen in patients with disease lasting more than 2 weeks. Endocarditis is rare. Meningitis occurs mainly in infants and children. Brain abscesses occur in adults, but rarely. Epididymitis has been reported.Intestinal perforation occurs in 0.5% to 1% of patients. Other complications are septic shock, bleeding diathesis, hepatitis (with or without jaundice) and abscesses (brain, liver, and spleen). Septic arthritis occurs rarely. CNS infections can cause extraocular palsies.

PREVENTION
Hand washing,maintain hyegeine, vaccine available both injectable and oral vaccine. Booster doses required every 2yrs (injectable vaccine) and every 5yrs (oral vaccine).

RISK FACTORS
Care for patients (fecal-oral pathogens)
Consume unpasteurized milk/cheese
Eat undercooked meat or fish
Fail to complete immunizations
Ingest infectious agents in food/water
Travel to endemic area
Victim--water/food release
Work in a medical or research lab

DIAGNOSIS
Culture of blood (early), urine and feces (after first week) and bone marrow (most sensitive); Serology (Widal) not useful; Serology not sens & not spec.; Blood cultures are 40% to 80% sensitive.

TREATMENT
Given in the table

Thanking You,
Dr Atul Chowdhury
General Medicine
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