The effects of bariatric surgery on periconception maternal
Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing. Bariatric surgery is currently viewed as the most effective, long-term solution for this problem. Preconception bariatric surgery can reduce the prevalence of obesity-related subfertility and adverse maternal, pregnancy, and birth outcomes.

The aim of this review was to investigate associations between bariatric surgery and determinants of periconceptional maternal health such as endocrine changes, fertility, vitamin status, irregular menstrual cycles, miscarriages, and congenital malformations.

Medline, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane databases were used for the literature search. A total of 51 articles were analyzed. The mean quality score was 5.

- After bariatric surgery, hormonal axes normalized and menstrual cycle regularity was restored, resulting in increased fertility.

- Overall, there were no short-term risks for reproductive outcomes such as the increased risk of miscarriages or congenital malformations.

- However, the risk of vitamin deficiencies was generally increased after bariatric surgery.

A meta-analysis of 20 studies showed a significant decrease in infertility and menstrual cycle irregularities with no difference in rates of miscarriage and congenital malformations.

Human Reproduction Update