The trochlear sulcus of the native knee is consistently orie
The aim of this study was to describe the native trochlear orientation of non-arthritic knees in three planes and to quantify the relationship between trochlear and distal condylar anatomy across race and sex.

CT scans of 1578 femora were included in this study. The mediolateral position of the trochlear sulcus, the distal trochlear sulcus angle (DTSA) the medial sulcus angle (MSA) and the lateral sulcus angle (LSA) as well as the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA) were measured relative to a standard reference coordinate system. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to account for potential confounding variables.

Results:
--The mediolateral position of the trochlear sulcus had minimal mean deviation of the sagittal femoral plane.

--The mean DTSA was 86.1°. Multilinear regression analysis found mLDFA, sex, and age all influence DTSA, with mLDFA having by far the greatest influence (r2?=?0.55).

--The medial facet of the trochlear sulcus was found to be flat proximally and more prominent distally. The lateral facet was relatively uniform throughout the arc.

Conclusively, trochlear sulcus is constantly oriented in the sagittal femoral plane regardless of distal condylar architecture, due to a substantial positive connection between the DTSA and the mLDFA. Minor differences from the sagittal plane occur laterally in the middle section and in the proximal and distal section of the trochlea in the medial direction. The biomimetic design of complete knee implants has significance to these results.

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00167-021-06667-9
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