Tracheobronchomegaly
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An 84-year-old man with symptomatic severe aortic-valve stenosis was admitted for transapical aortic-valve implantation to be performed while the patient was under general anesthesia. He had a history of chronic bronchitis and recurrent respiratory infections. After endotracheal intubation and tube-cuff inflation, a severe peritubal air leak was identified. Three reintubations were performed until a large 9.0-mm tube was finally placed that limited leakage to a clinically acceptable value. A preoperative chest radiograph was reassessed, and postoperative computed tomography confirmed tracheobronchomegaly (Panel A, arrowheads, and Panels B and C). This rare congenital condition, described by Mounier-Kuhn in 1932, is characterized by marked dilatation of the trachea and the main bronchi and is associated with recurrent infection of the lower respiratory tract...

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